omphalos n : scar where the umbilical cord was attached [syn: navel, umbilicus, bellybutton, omphalus]
- An ancient religious stone artifact, or baetylus, used to denote the direction of the "center" of the world.
- The theological proposition that the world was created with certain indicia of a history which had not actually occurred (such as the humans who had never been connected to umbilical cords being created with navels).
An omphalos is an ancient religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Greek, the word omphalos means "navel" (compare the name of Queen Omphale). According to the ancient Greeks, Zeus sent out two eagles to fly across the world to meet at its center, the "navel" of the world. Omphalos stones used to denote this point were erected in several areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at the oracle in Delphi. The plant genus Omphalodes in the family Boraginaceae is commonly called navelwort.
DelphiMost accounts locate the Omphalos in the temple adyton near the Pythia. The stone itself (which may have been a copy) has a carving of a knotted net covering its surface, and has a hollow centre, which widens towards its base (illustrated, to the right).
The Omphalos at Delphi came to be identified as the stone which Rhea wrapped in swaddling clothes, pretending it was Zeus. This was to deceive Cronus, his father, who swallowed his children so they could not grow up and depose him as he had deposed his own father, Uranus.
Omphalos stones were said to allow direct communication with the gods. Leicester Holland (1933) has suggested that the stone was hollow to channel intoxicating vapours breathed by the Oracle. Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python at Delphi was an earth spirit, who was conquered by Apollo, and buried under the Omphalos, and that it is a case of one god setting up his temple on the grave of another.
Christian destruction of the site in the fourth century at the order of Emperors Theodosius and Arcadius makes all suggestions about its use tentative.
- Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.
- Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek States, 1896.
- Goodrich, Norma Lorre, Priestesses, 1990.
- Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, The Greeks and their Gods, 1955.
- Holland, Leicester B. "The Mantic Mechanism at Delphi" in American Journal of Archaeology, 37, 1933, pp.204 - 214.
- Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, 1928. Ch. 14 cf. Greek Oracles,www, PRS
- Jane Ellen Harrison, Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion, 1912. cf. p.396 and after for a discussion on the Omphalos. http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_page.pl?DPI=100&callnum=BL781.H32&object=426http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_title.pl?callnum=BL781.H32
- Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo
- Rohde, Erwin, Psyche, 1925.
omphalos in Welsh: Omphalos
omphalos in German: Omphalos
omphalos in Spanish: Ónfalos
omphalos in French: Omphalos
omphalos in Italian: Omphalos
omphalos in Dutch: Omphalos (Delphi)
omphalos in Portuguese: Onfalos
omphalos in Russian: Омфал
omphalos in Slovak: Omfalos (staroveké Grécko)
omphalos in Chinese: 翁法洛斯